The MySQL server can operate in different SQL modes, and can apply these modes differently for different clients. This capability enables each application to tailor the server's operating mode to its own requirements.
For answers to some questions that are often asked about server SQL modes in MySQL, see Section A.3, “MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Server SQL Mode”.
Modes define what SQL syntax MySQL should support and what kind of data validation checks it should perform. This makes it easier to use MySQL in different environments and to use MySQL together with other database servers.
You can set the default SQL mode by starting
mysqld with the
option, or by using
my.cnf (Unix operating systems) or
modes is a list of different modes
separated by comma (“
characters. The default value is empty (no modes set). The
modes value also can be empty
--sql-mode="" on the command line,
my.cnf on Unix systems or in
my.ini on Windows) if you want to clear it
You can change the SQL mode at runtime by using a
sql_mode=' statement to
sql_mode system value.
GLOBAL variable requires the
SUPER privilege and affects the
operation of all clients that connect from that time on. Setting
SESSION variable affects only the current
client. Any client can change its own session
sql_mode value at any time.
SQL mode and user-defined partitioning. Changing the server SQL mode after creating and inserting data into partitioned tables can cause major changes in the behavior of such tables, and could lead to loss or corruption of data. It is strongly recommended that you never change the SQL mode once you have created tables employing user-defined partitioning.
When replicating partitioned tables, differing SQL modes on master and slave can also lead to problems. For best results, you should always use the same server SQL mode on the master and on the slave.
See Section 18.5, “Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning”, for more information.
You can retrieve the current global or session
sql_mode value with the following
SELECT @@GLOBAL.sql_mode; SELECT @@SESSION.sql_mode;
The most important
values are probably these:
This mode changes syntax and behavior to conform more closely to standard SQL.
If a value could not be inserted as given into a transactional table, abort the statement. For a nontransactional table, abort the statement if the value occurs in a single-row statement or the first row of a multiple-row statement. More detail is given later in this section.
Make MySQL behave like a “traditional” SQL database system. A simple description of this mode is “give an error instead of a warning” when inserting an incorrect value into a column.
The following list describes all supported modes:
Don't do full checking of dates. Check only that the month is
in the range from 1 to 12 and the day is in the range from 1
to 31. This is very convenient for Web applications where you
obtain year, month, and day in three different fields and you
want to store exactly what the user inserted (without date
validation). This mode applies to
DATETIME columns. It does not
TIMESTAMP columns, which
always require a valid date.
The server requires that month and day values be legal, and
not merely in the range 1 to 12 and 1 to 31, respectively.
With strict mode disabled, invalid dates such as
'2004-04-31' are converted to
'0000-00-00' and a warning is generated.
With strict mode enabled, invalid dates generate an error. To
allow such dates, enable
"” as an identifier
quote character (like the “
quote character) and not as a string quote character. You can
still use “
`” to quote
identifiers with this mode enabled. With
ANSI_QUOTES enabled, you
cannot use double quotes to quote literal strings, because it
is interpreted as an identifier.
Produce an error in strict mode (otherwise a warning) when a
division by zero (or
occurs during an
UPDATE. If this mode is not
enabled, MySQL instead returns
divisions by zero. For
UPDATE IGNORE, MySQL
generates a warning for divisions by zero, but the result of
the operation is
The precedence of the
operator is such that expressions such as
BETWEEN b AND c are parsed as
BETWEEN b AND c). In some older versions of MySQL,
the expression was parsed as
(NOT a) BETWEEN b AND
c. The old higher-precedence behavior can be
obtained by enabling the
SET sql_mode = '';mysql>
SELECT NOT 1 BETWEEN -5 AND 5;-> 0 mysql>
SET sql_mode = 'HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE';mysql>
SELECT NOT 1 BETWEEN -5 AND 5;-> 1
Allow spaces between a function name and the
(” character. This causes
built-in function names to be treated as reserved words. As a
result, identifiers that are the same as function names must
be quoted as described in Section 8.2, “Schema Object Names”. For
example, because there is a
COUNT() function, the use of
count as a table name in the following
statement causes an error:
CREATE TABLE count (i INT);ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax
The table name should be quoted:
CREATE TABLE `count` (i INT);Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode
applies to built-in functions, not to user-defined functions
or stored functions. It is always allowable to have spaces
after a UDF or stored function name, regardless of whether
IGNORE_SPACE is enabled.
For further discussion of
Section 8.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”.
from automatically creating new users if it would otherwise do
so, unless a nonempty password also is specified.
affects handling of
Normally, you generate the next sequence number for the column
by inserting either
0 into it.
suppresses this behavior for
0 so that only
NULL generates the next sequence number.
This mode can be useful if
0 has been
stored in a table's
0 is not a recommended practice,
by the way.) For example, if you dump the table with
mysqldump and then reload it, MySQL
normally generates new sequence numbers when it encounters the
0 values, resulting in a table with
contents different from the one that was dumped. Enabling
reloading the dump file solves this problem.
mysqldump now automatically includes in its
output a statement that enables
avoid this problem.
Disable the use of the backslash character
\”) as an escape character
within strings. With this mode enabled, backslash becomes an
ordinary character like any other.
When creating a table, ignore all
directives. This option is useful on slave replication
Up through MySQL 5.1.11, with
disabled, the default engine is used and a warning occurs if
the desired engine is known but disabled or not compiled in.
If the desired engine is invalid (not a known engine name), an
error occurs and the table is not created or altered.
enabled, an error occurs and the table is not created or
altered if the desired engine is unavailable for any reason
(whether disabled or invalid).
As of MySQL 5.1.12, storage engines can be pluggable at runtime, so the distinction between disabled and invalid no longer applies. All unavailable engines are treated the same way:
CREATE TABLE the
default engine is used and a warning occurs if the desired
engine is unavailable. For
TABLE, a warning occurs and the table is not
enabled, an error occurs and the table is not created or
altered if the desired engine is unavailable.
In integer subtraction operations, do not mark the result as
UNSIGNED if one of the operands is
unsigned. In other words, the result of a
subtraction is always signed whenever this mode is in effect,
even if one of the operands is unsigned. For
example, compare the type of column
t1 with that of column
c2 in table
CREATE TABLE test (c1 BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL);mysql>
CREATE TABLE t1 SELECT c1 - 1 AS c2 FROM test;mysql>
DESCRIBE t1;+-------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +-------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | c2 | bigint(21) unsigned | | | 0 | | +-------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ mysql>
CREATE TABLE t2 SELECT c1 - 1 AS c2 FROM test;mysql>
DESCRIBE t2;+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | c2 | bigint(21) | | | 0 | | +-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
Note that this means that
is not 100% usable in all contexts. See
Section 11.9, “Cast Functions and Operators”.
SET SQL_MODE = '';mysql>
SELECT CAST(0 AS UNSIGNED) - 1;+-------------------------+ | CAST(0 AS UNSIGNED) - 1 | +-------------------------+ | 18446744073709551615 | +-------------------------+ mysql>
SET SQL_MODE = 'NO_UNSIGNED_SUBTRACTION';mysql>
SELECT CAST(0 AS UNSIGNED) - 1;+-------------------------+ | CAST(0 AS UNSIGNED) - 1 | +-------------------------+ | -1 | +-------------------------+
In strict mode, don't allow
a valid date. You can still insert zero dates with the
IGNORE option. When not in strict mode, the
date is accepted but a warning is generated.
In strict mode, do not accept dates where the year part is
nonzero but the month or day part is 0 (for example,
'0000-00-00' is legal but
'2010-01-00' are not). If used with the
IGNORE option, MySQL inserts a
'0000-00-00' date for any such date. When
not in strict mode, the date is accepted but a warning is
Do not allow queries for which the
SELECT list refers to
nonaggregated columns that are not named in the
BY clause. The following query is invalid with this
mode enabled because
address is not named
GROUP BY clause:
SELECT name, address, MAX(age) FROM t GROUP BY name;
As of MySQL 5.1.11, this mode also restricts references to
nonaggregated columns in the
that are not named in the
GROUP BY clause.
By default, trailing spaces are trimmed from
CHAR column values on
enabled, trimming does not occur and retrieved
CHAR values are padded to their
full length. This mode does not apply to
VARCHAR columns, for which
trailing spaces are retained on retrieval. This mode was added
in MySQL 5.1.20.
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 CHAR(10));Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.37 sec) mysql>
INSERT INTO t1 (c1) VALUES('xy');Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec) mysql>
SET sql_mode = '';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>
SELECT c1, CHAR_LENGTH(c1) FROM t1;+------+-----------------+ | c1 | CHAR_LENGTH(c1) | +------+-----------------+ | xy | 2 | +------+-----------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql>
SET sql_mode = 'PAD_CHAR_TO_FULL_LENGTH';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>
SELECT c1, CHAR_LENGTH(c1) FROM t1;+------------+-----------------+ | c1 | CHAR_LENGTH(c1) | +------------+-----------------+ | xy | 10 | +------------+-----------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Enable strict mode for all storage engines. Invalid data values are rejected. Additional detail follows.
Enable strict mode for transactional storage engines, and when possible for nontransactional storage engines. Additional details follow.
Strict mode controls how MySQL handles input values that are
invalid or missing. A value can be invalid for several reasons.
For example, it might have the wrong data type for the column, or
it might be out of range. A value is missing when a new row to be
inserted does not contain a value for a
NULL column that has no explicit
DEFAULT clause in its definition. (For a
inserted if the value is missing.)
For transactional tables, an error occurs for invalid or missing
values in a statement when either of the
STRICT_TRANS_TABLES modes are
enabled. The statement is aborted and rolled back.
For nontransactional tables, the behavior is the same for either mode, if the bad value occurs in the first row to be inserted or updated. The statement is aborted and the table remains unchanged. If the statement inserts or modifies multiple rows and the bad value occurs in the second or later row, the result depends on which strict option is enabled:
returns an error and ignores the rest of the rows. However, in
this case, the earlier rows still have been inserted or
updated. This means that you might get a partial update, which
might not be what you want. To avoid this, it is best to use
single-row statements because these can be aborted without
changing the table.
MySQL converts an invalid value to the closest valid value for
the column and insert the adjusted value. If a value is
missing, MySQL inserts the implicit default value for the
column data type. In either case, MySQL generates a warning
rather than an error and continues processing the statement.
Implicit defaults are described in
Section 10.1.4, “Data Type Default Values”.
Strict mode disallows invalid date values such as
'2004-04-31'. It does not disallow dates with
zero month or day parts such as
“zero” dates. To disallow these as well, enable the
NO_ZERO_DATE SQL modes in
addition to strict mode.
If you are not using strict mode (that is, neither
STRICT_ALL_TABLES is enabled),
MySQL inserts adjusted values for invalid or missing values and
produces warnings. In strict mode, you can produce this behavior
UPDATE IGNORE. See
Section 22.214.171.124, “
SHOW WARNINGS Syntax”.
The following special modes are provided as shorthand for combinations of mode values from the preceding list.
The descriptions include all mode values that are available in the most recent version of MySQL. For older versions, a combination mode does not include individual mode values that are not available except in newer versions.
As of MySQL 5.1.18,
mode also causes the server to return an error for queries
where a set function
S with an
cannot be aggregated in the outer query against which the
outer reference has been resolved. This is such a query:
SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE t1.a IN (SELECT MAX(t1.b) FROM t2 WHERE ...);
aggregated in the outer query because it appears in the
WHERE clause of that query. Standard SQL
requires an error in this situation. If
ANSI mode is not enabled,
the server treats
in such queries the same way that it would interpret
as was always done prior to 5.1.18.